Different models help to represent the information process and whilst illustrating what is meant by information literacy. The individual phases of the research process are presented in a linear order or a circular arrangement. Some models consider only cognitive factors, while others also consider emotional factors such as anxiety and uncertainty. All models offer solution and active oriented approaches while simplifying the complexity of the information process. Models form the basis for the development of standards.

Summary of the literature on the individual models

Haeberli, Justine (2010). Informationskompetenz für den universitären Standort Göttingen: Bestandsaufnahme und Empfehlungen. Berlin: Institut für Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

Schatovich, Anna Katharina (2007). Zur Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz an österreichischen Universitätsbibliotheken: Entwicklung, Status quo und Perspektiven im Raum Wien. Eisenstadt: FH-StG Informationsberufe.

Models from English speaking regions

The Big 6 – Information & Technology Skills for Student Achievement
Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz developed the „Big 6“ model. It is the most widely used and quoted model of the information process. This model describes the information process in six steps, which are further divided into two statements. It shows the solution and action oriented character on a purely cognitive level. The interesting thing about this model is that it cannot only be used in higher education but also at kindergarten, primary and secondary school levels (Super 3 model, reduced to three steps). The website contains comprehensive information on the model, working materials on the subject organized by grade levels, tutorials and blogs.

Seven Pillars of Information Literacy
The Seven Pillars of SCONUL (Society of College, National and University Libraries, UK) illustrates the information process in seven pillars, each constituting of a section of information literacy. The model works on competency levels (from novice to expert) for each pillar. The development from novice to expert the user goes through the entire information process several times, thus becoming more competent in handling information.

Information Search Process (ISP)
Carol Kuhlthau, a  professor of Library and Information Science, developed the Information Search Process model at Rutgers University in New Jersey. The model uses six phases, with Kuhlthau placing the information needs and the research preparations in the foreground. In addition to the representation of the information process Kuhlthau takes the feelings, thoughts and actions that may occur during the information process into account. It assumes that the information seeker is rather insecure and scared at the start. Only in a later stage of the information process, these doubts are replaced by a sense of security.

Models from German speaking regions

The Dynamic Model of Information Literacy (DYMIK) was developed in 2000 by Benno Homann at the Heidelberg University Library. Homann assumes that during the search process rational and emotional factors play a role (see also Carol Kuhltau) and thus affect the information process. Ideally, an information seeker goes through all five phases of this model in a linear sequence. Each of the five phases is influenced by the other elements. These elements can be a decisive factor of whether to move on to the next phase in the search process. If the conditions are not right, the seeker must repeat a previous phase. Thus, the information process achieves a dynamic character and is no longer purely linear.

Lernsystem Informationskompetenz (LIK)
The Information Literacy Learning System was founded by Detlev Dannenberg from the University of Applied Sciences in Hamburg. Dannenberg sees his model as an interface between libraries of all levels and the various training centres. The model is not linear but made up of four parts, which information literacy consists of according to Dannenberg. These parts are all interlinked and independent of each other. Other components of the overall concept of LIK are: objectives, principles, and didactic information on methodological components.