Project "Information Literacy in Swiss Universities". (2011). Information Literacy Competency Grid. Zürich.

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Standards can be considered as generally recognized objectives, which are formulated on an abstract level and describe a competence area in few words. Thus, for standards to be used in practice they need concrete competence descriptions for specific target groups. With a modular grid of competencies at three levels (beginner, intermediate, expert) this necessary specification for different environments was addressed.

The beginner level describes the desired competencies of students in the first year of study, the advanced level relates to students in the transition from bachelor to master level. The expert level should be reached by students who opt for further academic work in research or industry. This, however, is a purely cursory observation. The competence grid should be used according to its modular design. The requirements can be adjusted to meet the needs of the environment it is to be used in. Students of jurisprudence have different requirements with respect to their information literacy to students of electrical engineering.